2019 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE ANSWERS

AGRIC OBJ
1-10: DBBBEDBEDD
11-20: DDBAACDADD
21-30: EECAAABBDB
31-40: CECECDCCAC
41-50: AADCADAADE
51-60: CDEAEDADEB

Obj Questions below

INSTRUCTION: ANSWER ANY, one QUESTION FROM EACH SECTION

SECTION A
Choose either No.1 or 2.

1a.
i) Horticulture and Agronomy
ii) Pre-Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
iii) Equine Science
iv) Agricultural Business

1b) (I) inheritance
Advantages

i) This is the most available system for all farmers
ii) Farmers can cultivate permanent plants such as cocoa, oil palm, kola, and rubber

(II) Land tenure system

The Advantages of Leasehold Tenure System
i) A leasehold land can be considered as personal property, so the tenant can use it as own land
ii) It is available for farming a permanent crop

1c.
Live stock structure: These include
i) homes (farmhouses),
ii) livestock barns and shelters,

Processing buildings :
i) Crop storage
ii) special-purpose structures.

1d.
i) small farms and scattered agricultural holdings
ii) lack of natural strategy for agricultural mechanization
iii) low price of harvested agricultural products

iv) high costs of farm machinery

2a.
Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, topography, size and boundary of an area of farmland. Such measurement by tables, plans or layout are done for specific purposes

2aii.
PICK THREE
(i)Topography
(ii)Soil type
(iii)Accessibility
(iv)Water supply
(v)Health /Hygiene
(vi)Nearness to market
(vii)Drainage

2b.
PICK THREE
(i)store in cool dry place
(iii)Paint,Oil or grease metal part before storage for along time
(iii)Clean or wash after use
(iv)Keep away from rain or moist places to avoid rusting

2c.
PICK FOUR
(i)Inadequate land or land Tenure system
(ii)Inadequate Finance or Credit facilities
(iii)Poor Transportation network
(iv)Inadequate storage and processing facilities
(v)Inadequate basic Amenities
(vi)Poor marketing system
(vii)Inadequate Agricultural Education and Extension
(viii)Problems of Pest and diseases
(ix)Inadequate Tools and Machinery
(x)Inconsistent Government policies on Agriculture

2d.
PICK FOUR
(i)The Decree states that all land in the country is Vested in the federal government to be held in trust for the people

(ii)The decree empowers each state to act on behalf of the federal government in all matters related to land in use in the state

(iii)It takes care of the inadequacies inherent in land ownership in Nigeria

(iv)It is a reform essentially aimed at encouraging proper,productive and efficient use of land

(v)All Nigerians are qualified to acquire land for use once they have obtained the age of 21years

(vi)It states that before anyone could be legally recognized as owning any piece of land,he must have applied to the government, paid for the land,and thereafter be issued a Certificate of Occupancy(C of O) on the acquired land

SECTION B
choose EITHER 4 or 5.

(4ai)
-magnesium-
(i)Magnesium is also used by plants for the metabolism of carbohydrates
(ii)It is used in cell membrane stabilization.

(4aii)
-Manganese-
(i)It is used for nitrogen metabolism
(ii)For synthesis of some enzymes

(4aiii)
-Molybdenum-
(i)To convert nitrate into nitrite and then into ammonia.
(ii)It is also needed by symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

(4b)
(i)Less water is lost in the process and there is no run-off.
(ii)Subsurface irrigation systems can free up aboveground space.
(iii)Crops grown in these conditions may grow more uniformly.
(iv)With less water remaining on the leaves, there is a lowered risk of excessive moisture damage.

(4ci)
-Overgrazing-
(i)Leads to erosion
(ii)Loss of soil nutrients

(4cii)
-Clean Clearing-
(i)Leads to erosion
(ii)Reduction of micro organisms activities

(4ciii)
-Bush Burning-
(i)It kills soil micro organisms

(ii)Leads to loss of soil nutrients.

(5ai)
Hybridization is the process of crossing two genetically different individuals to result in a third individual with a different, often preferred, set of traits.

(5aii)
Homozygous are individual organisms carrying two identical alleles (for example RR or rr) While heterozygous are individual organisms that bear different alleles (for example Rr).

(5b)
(i) Reduction in farm output
(ii) Reduction in farmer’s income for crop producers
(iii) Reduction of quality of crop
(iv) Increase in prices for consumers.
(v) More expenses to fight the disease.
(vi) It causes instability in food supply.

(5c)
(i) Good soil preparation.
(ii) Use of indigenous varieties.
(iii) Pest control through the use of mesh screen (nylon nets)
(iv) Roguing or Pruning
(v) Intercropping with aromatic herbs

(vi) Crop rotation and Multiple cropping

SECTION C

SOLVING AND TYPING

SECTION D

(8a)
(i)Uses of animals and their health problems
(ii)Organs and systems of an animal body
(iii)Rumen movement in ruminants
(iv)Appearance of the healthy animal

(8bi)
-Rinderpest-
(i)quarantine and slaughter.
(ii)vaccination

(8bii)
-Aspergillosis-
(i)Good hatchery sanitation
(ii)Avoidance of mouldy feed

(8biii)
-Anthrax –
(i)Cut off infection source.
(ii)Dispose of anthrax carcasses correctly

(8biv)
(i)Vaccination
(ii)Isolation of suspected animals

(8c)
(i)Poor growth
(ii)High competition for survival
(ii)It could lead to death of animal

(iv)It can lead to cannibalism

SECTION E

(10ai)
The law of diminishing returns states that in a production process, as on input variable is increased, there will be a point at which the marginal per unit will start to decrease holding all other factors constant.

(10aii)
(i) Price of related commodities
(ii) Price of rice
(iii) Income of the consumers
(iv) Expectation of change in the price in future
(v) Taste of consumers
(vi) Smuggling of rice

(10bi)
Total depreciation = Cost price – Selling price

Given that the cost of rice = N108,000
Selling price = N93,000

Total depreciation = 108,000 – 93,000 = N15,000

(10bii)
Annual depreciation = Total depreciation/ Life span

Total depreciation = N15,000
Life span = 2017-2007
Life span = 10years

Annual depreciation = 15,000/10 = N1,500

(10ci)
(i) Inadequate support of rural farmers to the extension workers
(ii) Not getting the problems to solve at hand adequately

(10cii)
(i) Political institute’s
(ii) Support organizations
(iii) Health services
(iv) Local schools
(v) Community development
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